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~ .: SAKHAL MUSIC STUDIO :. ~

.: INDIAN (HINDU) SCALES :.

Before going in the concept of raga, let us first understand the concept of mela, also called that. These are musical scales having all seven notes in succession, with any one form, flat or sharp, of a note. Mela scales are quite equivalent to the scales of western music, like the major and minor heptatonic scales. The mela scales are the parent scales of the raga scales. The basic seven notes are sa, re, ga, ma, pa, dha and ni. These are similar to the solfege pattern (sa, re, ga, ma, pa, dha, ni are equivalent to do, re, mi, fa, sol, la, si in the solfege notation). Now, sa and pa do not have any variation and are called as pure notes. Whereas, re, ga, dha and ni have a flat variation (re, ga, dha, ni are equivalent to flat re, flat me, flat la, flat ti) and ma has a sharp variation (ma is equivalent to sharp fa). In all there are twelve notes (carnatic music follows a pattern of sixteen notes in total). Every mela has seven notes. All the seven notes are included, with only one of its variations. There are 32 melas according to hindustani or north indian style and 72 according to carnatic or south indian style. Among the 32 melas of hindustani music, only ten are popular. Mela scales do not have melodic or aesthetic value; they are theoretic scales used for the derivation of ragas.

Raga is a special concept unique to indian music, both hindustani and carnatic style. Raga is a particular type of scale that has aesthetic value; the notes of the scale have a specific melodic structure. Moreover it can be called as a melodic mode of notes. There are certain general rules which make a raga scale. Every raga scale further has a set of rules of its own, to be followed while building up its melodic frame. These are the rules that a raga scale should follow:

- A raga scale must have its origin in a mela scale.

- A raga scale should have at least five notes.

- In a raga scale, the two forms of a note (flat and sharp) should not come in succession.

- A raga scale must have both ascending and descending (aroha and avaroha) order of notes.

- A raga scale should have the note sa (do of the solfege notation).

- A raga scale should have at least one note from ma and pa (fa and so of the solfege notation).

- A raga scale should have both vadi (the most important note which is used and shown the maximum number of times in a raga) and samvadi (the note which is next in importance in a raga, and is in harmony with the vadi) notes.

- A raga scale should have an aesthetic value.

There are a few raga scales that are exception to the second rule; however, these are quite popular and well accepted as classical ragas.

Apart from these rules, it has to be understood that a raga scale is much more than these rules. There may be two or more raga scales with the same notes and their ascending or descending order; yet, they will sound very much different from one another. This is because every raga scale has its own style of pronouncing every note and also the movement of notes. It is important to remember that the way the notes are approached and rendered in musical phrases, and the mood they convey, are more important in defining a raga scale than the notes themselves. In classical music performance, all these rules have to be followed strictly. But in semi-classical, light, devotional and other forms of indian music, even if the tune of a song is composed in a raga scale, the rules may not be strictly followed.

:: Tritonic Scales

Raga Malasri --> 1, 3, 5
Raga Ongkari --> 1, #4, 5
Raga Sarvasri --> 1, 4, 5

:: Tetratonic Scales

Raga Bhavani --> 1, 2, 4, 6
Raga Lavangi --> 1, b2, 5, b7
Raga Mahathi --> 1, 3, 5, b7
Raga Sumukam --> 1, 2, #4, 7

:: Pentatonic Scales

Raga Abhogi --> 1, 2, b3, 4, 6
Raga Amritavarsini --> 1, 3, #4, 5, 7
Raga Audav Tukhari --> 1, 2, b3, 4, #5
Raga Bhinna Shadja --> 1, 3, 4, 6, 7
Raga Bhupalam --> 1, b2, b3, 5, b6
Raga Bupeshwari --> 1, 2, 3, 5, b6
Raga Chandrakauns Kafi --> 1, b3, 4, 6, b7
Raga Chandrakauns Kiravani --> 1, b3, 4, b6, 7
Raga Chandrakauns Modern --> 1, b3, 4, 6, 7
Raga Chaya Todi --> 1, b2, b3, b5, b6
Raga Desh --> 1, 2, 4, 5, 7
Raga Deshgaur --> 1, b2, 5, b6, 7
Raga Devakriya --> 1, 2, 4, 5, 6
Raga Devaranji --> 1, 4, 5, b6, 7
Raga Devranjani --> 1, 4, 5, b6, b7
Raga Dhavalashri --> 1, 3, #4, 5, 6
Raga Gambhiranata --> 1, 3, 4, 5, 7
Raga Gauri --> 1, b2, 4, 5, 7
Raga Girija --> 1, 3, 4, #5, 7
Raga Gorakh Kalyan --> 1, 2, 4, 6, b7
Raga Hamsadhvani --> 1, 2, 3, 5, b7
Raga Harikauns --> 1, b3, b5, b6, b7
Raga Hindol --> 1, 3, b5, 6, 7
Raga Jayakauns --> 1, b3, 4, b5, b7
Raga Khamaji Durga --> 1, 3, 4, 6, b7
Raga Kokil Pancham --> 1, b3, 4, 5, b6
Raga Kshanika --> 1, b2, 4, b6, 7
Raga Kumurdaki --> 1, 2, 3, b5, 7
Raga Kuntvarali --> 1, 4, 5, 6, b7
Raga Madhyamavati --> 1, 2, 4, 5, b7
Raga Malkauns --> 1, b3, 4, b6, b7
Raga Mamata --> 1, 3, 5, 6, 7
Raga Manaranjani 1 --> 1, b2, 3, 5, b7
Raga Manaranjani 2 --> 1, b2, 4, 5, 6
Raga Matha Kokila --> 1, 2, 5, 6, b7
Raga Megharanjani --> 1, b2, 3, 4, b6
Raga Megharanji --> 1, b2, 3, 4, 7
Raga Mohanangi --> 1, #2, 3, 5, 6
Raga Multani --> 1, b3, #4, 5, 7
Raga Nabhomani --> 1, b2, 2, #4, 5
Raga Nagasvaravali --> 1, 3, 4, 5, 6
Raga Nata --> 1, b3, 4, 5, 7
Raga Neroshta --> 1, 2, 3, b6, b7
Raga Priyadharshini --> 1, 2, 4, b6, 7
Raga Purnalalita --> 1, 2, b3, 4, 5
Raga Puruhutika --> 1, 4, 5, 6, 7
Raga Rasika Ranjani --> 1, b2, 3, 5, 6
Raga Rasranjani --> 1, 2, 4, 6, 7
Raga Reva --> 1, b2, 3, 5, b6
Raga Salanganata --> 1, b2, 4, 5, b6
Raga Samudhra Priya --> 1, b3, #4, 5, b7
Raga Saugandhini --> 1, b2, #4, 5, b6
Raga Shailaja --> 1, b3, 5, b6, b7
Raga Shobhavari --> 1, 2, 4, 5, b6
Raga Shri Kalyan --> 1, 2, #4, 5, 6
Raga Sivaranjini --> 1, 2, b3, 5, 6
Raga Vaijayanti --> 1, 2, #4, 5, 7
Raga Valaji --> 1, 3, 5, 6, b7
Raga Vibhavari --> 1, b2, 4, 5, b7
Raga Zilaf --> 1, 3, 4, 5, b6

:: Hexatonic Scales

Raga Amarasenapriya --> 1, 2, b3, #4, 5, 7
Raga Bagesri --> 1, 2, b3, 4, 6, b7
Raga Barbara --> 1, 2, 3, #4, 6, b7
Raga Bauli --> 1, b2, 3, 5, b6, 7
Raga Bhanumanjari --> 1, #2, 3, 4, 5, b7
Raga Bhavani --> 1, b2, b3, b5, b6, b7
Raga Bhinna Pancama --> 1, 2, 4, 5, b6, 7
Raga Brindabani Sarang --> 1, 2, 4, 5, #6, 7
Raga Caturangini --> 1, 2, 3, #4, 5, 7
Raga Chandrajyoti --> 1, b2, 2, #4, 5, 6
Raga Darbar --> 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 ,b7
Raga Dhavalangam --> 1, b2, 3, #4, 5, b6
Raga Dipak --> 1, 2, 3, 4, b5, 5
Raga Gandharavam --> 1, b2, b3, 4, 5, b7
Raga Gaula --> 1, b2, 3, 4, 5, 7
Raga Ghantana --> 1, 2, b3, 4, b6, 7
Raga Gopikavasantam --> 1, b3, 4, 5, b6, b7
Raga Gopriya --> 1, 2, 3, #4, #5, b7
Raga Gurjari Todi --> 1, b2, b3, b5, b6, 7
Raga Hamsa Vinodini --> 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7
Raga Hamsanandi --> 1, b2, 3, b5, 6, b7
Raga Hari Nata --> 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Raga Hejjajji --> 1, b2, 3, #4, #5, 6
Raga Jaganmohanam --> 1, 2, #4, 5, b6, b7
Raga Jivantika --> 1, b2, 4, 5, 6, 7
Raga Jivantini --> 1, b3, #4, 5, #6, 7
Raga Jyoti --> 1, 3, #4, 5, b6, b7
Raga Kaikavasi --> 1, 2, b3, #4, 5, 7
Raga Kalagada --> 1, b2, 3, 5, b6, 6
Raga Kalakanthi --> 1, b2, 4, 5, b6, 6
Raga Kalavati --> 1, b2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Raga Kamalamanohari --> 1, 3, 4, 5, b6, b7
Raga Kambhoji --> 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Raga Khamas --> 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, b7
Raga Kumud --> 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7
Raga Latika --> 1, 2, 3, 5, b6, 7
Raga Madhukauns --> 1, b3, #4, 5, 6, b7
Raga Sarasvati --> 1, 2, #4, 5, #6, 7
Raga Malayamarutam --> 1, b2, 3, 5, 6, b7
Raga Manavi --> 1, 2, b3, 5, 6, b7
Raga Mandari --> 1, b2, 3, #4, 5, 7
Raga Manohari --> 1, b3, 4, 5, 6, b7
Raga Mruganandana --> 1, 2, 3, b5, 6, 7
Raga Nagagandhari --> 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7
Raga Nalinakanti --> 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7
Raga Navamanohari --> 1, 2, 4, 5, b6, b7
Raga Padi --> 1, b2, 4, 5, b6, 7
Raga Palasi --> 1, 2, b3, 4, 5, b7
Raga Paraju --> 1, 3, 4, 5, b6, 7
Raga Phenadyuti --> 1, b2, 4, 5, b6, b7
Raga Purna Pancama --> 1, b2, 3, 4, 5, b6
Raga Rageshri --> 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, b7
Raga Ranjani --> 1, 2, b3, b5, 6, 7
Raga Rasamanjari --> 1, #2, 3, #4, 5, 7
Raga Rasavali --> 1, b2, 4, 5, 6, b7
Raga Rudra Pancama --> 1, b2, 3, 4, 6, b7
Raga Salagavarali --> 1, b2, b3, 5, 6, b7
Raga Sarang --> 1, 2, 4, 5, #6, 7
Raga Sarasanana --> 1, 2, 3, 4, b6, 7
Raga Sarasvati --> 1, 2, #4, 5, 6, b7
Raga Saravati --> 1, 3, 4, 5, b6, bb7
Raga Sindhura Kafi --> 1, 2, b3, 4, 5, 7
Raga Siva Kambhoji --> 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, b7
Raga Suddha Bangala --> 1, 2, b3, 4, 5, 6
Raga Suddha Mukhari --> 1, b2, 2, 4, b6, 6
Raga Suddha Simantini --> 1, b2, b3, 4, 5, b6
Raga Suddha Todi --> 1, b2, b3, 4, b6, b7
Raga Syamalam --> 1, 2, b3, #4, 5, b6
Raga Takka --> 1, b3, 4, 5, b6, 7
Raga Tilang --> 1, 3, 4, 5, #6, 7
Raga Trimurti --> 1, 2, b3, 5, b6, b7
Raga Vasanta --> 1, b2, 3, 4, 6, 7
Raga Vasantabhairavi --> 1, b2, 3, 4, b6, b7
Raga Vijayanagari --> 1, 2, b3, #4, 5, 6
Raga Vijarasyi --> 1, b2, b3, #4, 5, 7
Raga Vijayavasanta --> 1, 3, #4, 5, #6, 7
Raga Viyogavarali --> 1, b2, b3, 4, b6, 7
Raga Vutari --> 1, 3, #4, 5, 6, b7
Raga Yamuna Kalyani --> 1, 2, 3, #4, 5, 6

:: Heptatonic Scales

Mela Bhavapriya --> 1, b2, b3, #4, 5, b6, b7
Mela Calanata --> 1, #2, 3, 4, 5, #6, 7
Mela Carukesi --> 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, b6, bb7
Mela Chakravakam --> 1, b2, 3, 4, 5, 6, b7
Mela Citrambari --> 1, 2, 3, #4, 5, #6, 7
Mela Dharmavati --> 1, 2, b3, #4, 5, 6, 7
Mela Dhatuvardhani --> 1, #2, 3, #4, 5, b6, 7
Mela Dhavalambari --> 1, b2, 3, #4, 5, b6, bb7
Mela Divyamani --> 1, b2, b3, #4, 5, #6, 7
Mela Ganamurti --> 1, b2, 2, 4, 5, b6, 7
Mela Gangeyabhusani --> 1, #2, 3, 4, 5, b6, 7
Mela Gavambodhi --> 1, b2, b3, #4, 5, b6, bb7
Mela Gayakapriya --> 1, b2, 3, 4, 5, b6, bb7
Mela Harikambhoji --> 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, b7
Mela Hatakambari --> 1, b2, 3, 4, 5, #6, 7
Mela Hemavati --> 1, 2, b3, #4, 5, 6, b7
Mela Salaga --> 1, b2, 2, #4, 5, b6, b7
Mela Jhalavarali --> 1, b2, 2, #4, 5, b6, 7
Mela Jhankaradhvani --> 1, 2, b3, 4, 5, b6, bb7
Mela Jyotisvarupini --> 1, #2, 3, #4, 5, b6, b7
Mela Kantamani --> 1, 2, 3, #4, 5, b6, bb7
Mela Kosalam --> 1, #2, 3, #4, 5, 6, 7
Mela Latangi --> 1, 2, 3, #4, 5, b6, 7
Mela Manavati --> 1, b2, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7
Mela Mararanjani --> 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, b6, bb7
Mela Naganandini --> 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, #6, 7
Mela Namanarayani --> 1, b2, 3, #4, 5, b6, b7
Mela Natakrapiya --> 1, b2, b3, 4, 5, 6, b7
Mela Navanitam --> 1, b2, 2, #4, 5, 6, b7
Mela Nitimani --> 1, 2, b3, #4, 5, #6, 7
Mela Pavani --> 1, b2, 2, #4, 5, 6, 7
Mela Ragavardhani --> 1, #2, 3, 4, 5, b6, b7
Mela Raghupriya --> 1, b2, 2, #4, 5, #6, 7
Mela Ramapriya --> 1, b2, 3, #4, 5, 6, b7
Mela Rasikapriya --> 1, #2, 3, #4, 5, #6, 7
Mela Ratnangi --> 1, b2, 2, 4, 5, b6, b7
Mela Rupavati --> 1, b2, b3, 4, 5, #6, 7
Mela Sadvidhamargini --> 1, b2, b3, #4, 5, 6, b7
Mela Sanmukhapriya --> 1, 2, b3, #4, 5, b6, b7
Mela Senavati --> 1, b2, b3, 4, 5, b6, bb7
Mela Shankarabharanam --> 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Mela Sucaritra --> 1, #2, 3, #4, 5, b6, bb7
Mela Sulini --> 1, #2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Mela Suryakanta --> 1, b2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Mela Suvarnangi --> 1, b2, b3, #4, 5, 6, 7
Mela Syamalangi --> 1, 2, b3, #4, 5, b6, bb7
Mela Tanarupi --> 1, b2, 2, 4, 5, #6, 7
Mela Vagadhisvari --> 1, #2, 3, 4, 5, 6, b7
Mela Vakulabharanam --> 1, b2, 3, 4, 5, b6, b7
Mela Vanaspati --> 1, b2, 2, 4, 5, 6, b7
Mela Varunapriya --> 1, 2, b3, 4, 5, #6, 7
Mela Visvambhari --> 1, b2, 3, #4, 5, #6, 7
Mela Yagapriya --> 1, #2, 3, 4, 5, b6, bb7
Raga Adana --> 1, 2, b3, 4, 5, b6, b7
Raga Ahir Bhairav --> 1, b2, 3, 4, 5, 6, b7
Raga Bhanumati --> 1, b2, 2, 4, 5, 6, b7
Raga Bilashkhani Todu --> 1, b2, b3, 4, 5, b6, b7
Raga Ganasamavarali --> 1, b2, 2, 4, 5, b6, 7
Raga Kanakambari --> 1, b2, 2, 4, 5, b6, bb7
Raga Kiranavali --> 1, 2, b3, 4, 5, b6, 7
Raga Lalita --> 1, b2, 3, 4, b5, b6, 7
Raga Madhuri --> 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, b7, 7
Raga Marva That --> 1, b2, 3, #4, 5, 6, 7
Raga Patdip --> 1, 2, b3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Raga Ragesri --> 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, b7, 7
Raga Shri --> 1, b2, 3, #4, 5, b6, 7
Raga Shuddh Kalyan --> 1, 2, 3, #4, 5, 6, 7
Raga Simharava --> 1, 2, b3, #4, 5, b7
Raga Sorati --> 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, b7, 7

:: Octatonic Scales

Raga Bhatiyar --> 1, b2, 3, 4, b5, 5, 6, 7
Raga Cintamani --> 1, 2, b3, #4, 5, b6, 6, b7
Raga Mian Ki Malhar --> 1, 2, b3, 4, 5, 6, b7, 7
Raga Mukhari --> 1, 2, b3, 4, 5, b6, 6, b7
Raga Ramkali --> 1, b2, 3, 4, b5, 5, b6, 7
Raga Saurastra --> 1, b2, 3, 4, 5, b6, 6, 7

:: Nonatonic Scales

Raga Pilu --> 1, 2, b3, 4, 5, b6, 6, b7, 7
Raga Ramdasi Malhar --> 1, 2, b3, 3, #4, #5, 6, b7, 7

:: Decatonic Scales

Raga Sindhi Bhairavi --> 1, b2, 2, b3, 3, 4, 5, b6, b7, 7



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